Wild Buffalo

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Wild Buffalo

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In addition, recent genetic studies indicate that, like most bison herds, the Antelope Island bison herd has a small number of genes from domestic cattle.

In , the United States government donated some bison calves from South Dakota and Colorado to the Mexican government.

Recent genetic studies of privately owned herds of bison show that many of them include animals with genes from domestic cattle.

The numbers are uncertain because the tests used to date— mitochondrial DNA analysis—indicate only if the maternal line back from mother to mother ever included domesticated bovines, thus say nothing about possible male input in the process.

Most hybrids were found to look exactly like purebred bison; therefore, appearance is not a good indicator of genetics. The size of the Canadian domesticated herd genetic questions aside grew dramatically through the s and s.

The Census of Agriculture reported the Canadian herd at , head, a Alberta was the province with the largest herd, accounting for The next-largest herds were in Saskatchewan The main producing regions were in the northern parts of the Canadian prairies , specifically in the parkland belt , with the Peace River region shared between Alberta and British Columbia being the most important cluster, accounting for A proposal known as Buffalo Commons has been suggested by a handful of academics and policymakers to restore large parts of the drier portion of the Great Plains to native prairie grazed by bison.

Proponents argue that current agricultural use of the shortgrass prairie is not sustainable , pointing to periodic disasters, including the Dust Bowl , and continuing significant human population loss over the last 60 years.

However, this plan is opposed by some who live in the areas in question. A major problem that bison face today is a lack of genetic diversity due to the population bottleneck the species experienced during its near-extinction event.

Another genetic issue is the entry of genes from domestic cattle into the bison population, through hybridization.

Officially, the "American buffalo" is classified by the United States government as a type of cattle, and the government allows private herds to be managed as such.

This is a reflection of the characteristics that bison share with cattle. Though the American bison is not only a separate species, but also is usually regarded as being in a separate genus from domestic cattle Bos taurus , they clearly have a lot of genetic compatibility and American bison can interbreed with cattle, although only the female offspring are fertile in the first generation.

Many ranchers have deliberately crossbred their cattle with bison, and some natural hybridization could be expected in areas where cattle and bison occur in the same range.

Since cattle and bison eat similar food and tolerate similar conditions, they have often been in the same range together in the past, and opportunity for crossbreeding may sometimes have been common.

In recent decades, tests were developed to determine the source of mitochondrial DNA in cattle and bison, and most private "buffalo" herds were actually crossbred with cattle, and even most state and federal buffalo herds had some cattle DNA.

With the advent of nuclear microsatellite DNA testing, the number of herds known to contain cattle genes has increased.

Though about , bison exist on private ranches and in public herds, perhaps only 15, to 25, of these bison are pure and not actually bison-cattle hybrids.

One possible explanation for this might be the small amount of domestic cattle genes that are now in most bison populations, though this is not the only possible explanation for bison success.

In the study, cattle genes were also found in small amounts throughout most national, state and private herds. However, the extension of this herd into the Book Cliffs of central Utah involved mixing the founders with additional bison from another source, so it is not known if the Book Cliffs extension of the herd is also free of cattle hybridization.

A separate study by Wilson and Strobeck, published in Genome , was done to define the relationships between different herds of bison in the United States and Canada, and to determine whether the bison at Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada and the Yellowstone Park bison herd were possibly separate subspecies.

The Wood Buffalo Park bison were determined to actually be crossbreeds between plains and wood bison, but their predominant genetic makeup was that of the expected "wood buffalo".

Another finding was that the bison in the Antelope Island herd in Utah appeared to be more distantly related to other plains bison in general than any other plains bison group that was tested, though this might be due to genetic drift caused by the small size of only 12 individuals in the founder population.

A side finding of this was that the Antelope Island bison herd appears to be most closely related to the Wood Buffalo National Park bison herd, though the Antelope Island bison are actually plains bison.

Original distribution of plains bison and wood bison in North America along the " great bison belt ". Holocene bison Bison occidentalis is an earlier species at the origin of plains bison and wood bison.

Map of the extermination of the bison to This map based on William Temple Hornaday 's lateth century research. Distribution of public herds of plains bison and of free-ranging or captive breeding wood bison in North America as of In order to bolster the genetic diversity of the American bison the National Parks Service alongside the Department of the Interior announced on 7 May the Bison Conservation Initiative.

This initiative focuses on maintaining the genetic diversity of the metapopulation rather than individual herds. Small populations of bison are at considerably larger risk due to their decreased gene pool and are susceptible to catastrophic events more so than larger herds.

Specific smaller herds will require a more intense management plan. Translocated bison will also be screened for any health defects such as infection of brucellosis bacteria as to not put the larger herd at risk.

Among Native American tribes, especially the Plains Indians , the bison is considered a sacred animal and religious symbol.

Neyooxet Greymorning, "The creation stories of where buffalo came from put them in a very spiritual place among many tribes.

The buffalo crossed many different areas and functions, and it was utilized in many ways. It was used in ceremonies, as well as to make tipi covers that provided homes for people, utensils, shields, weapons and parts were used for sewing with the sinew.

The American bison is often used in North America in official seals, flags, and logos. In , the American bison became the national mammal of the United States.

In Canada, the bison is the official animal of the province of Manitoba and appears on the Manitoba flag. It is also used in the official coat of arms of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Several American coins feature the bison, most famously on the reverse side of the " buffalo nickel " from to In , the United States Mint coined a nickel with a new depiction of the bison as part of its "Westward Journey" series.

The Kansas and North Dakota state quarters, part of the " 50 State Quarter " series, each feature bison.

The Kansas state quarter has only the bison and does not feature any writing, while the North Dakota state quarter has two bison.

The Montana state quarter prominently features a bison skull over a landscape. The Yellowstone National Park quarter also features a bison standing next to a geyser.

Skin effigy of a Buffalo used in the Lakota Sun Dance. Manitoba uses a bison in its provincial flag, as seen inside the Manitoban coat of arms.

The Buffalo nickel —this style of coin featuring an American bison was produced from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of bovid artiodactyl mammal.

Temporal range: 0. Conservation status. Linnaeus , See also: Great bison belt. Play media. Main article: Bison hunting. A bison hunt depicted by George Catlin.

Wyoming uses a bison in its state flag. Retrieved November 10, Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved February 24, The Extermination of the American Bison.

Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on February 24, Bison bison errata version published in Downloaded on 06 March White Hancock, Michigan: George Wright Soc.

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Archived from the original MS thesis on September 28, Retrieved February 23, The Works of Samuel de Champlain, vol 3. Toronto: Champlain Society.

G Van Zyll de Jong , , A systematic study of recent bison, with particular consideration of the wood bison Bison bison athabascae Rhoads , p.

Boeskorov, Olga R. Potapova, Albert V. Protopopov, Valery V. Plotnikov, Larry D. Agenbroad, Konstantin S. Kirikov, Innokenty S. Pavlov, Marina V.

Shchelchkova, Innocenty N. Belolyubskii, Mikhail D. Tomshin, Rafal Kowalczyk, Sergey P. Davydov, Stanislav D. Kolesov, Alexey N.

Tikhonov, Johannes van der Plicht, , The Yukagir Bison: The exterior morphology of a complete frozen mummy of the extinct steppe bison, Bison priscus from the early Holocene of northern Yakutia, Russia, pp.

Mammalian Species : 1—8. Archived from the original PDF on December 29, North American Bison: Their classification and Evolution.

Princeton University Press. Variability in size-weight relationships of Bison bison. Journal of Mammalogy, 69 3 , Birth synchrony in American bison Bison bison : response to predation or season?

Journal of Mammalogy, 65 3 , Dominance and its fitness consequences in American bison cows. Behaviour, 96 1 , Dominance, age and weight in American bison males Bison bison during non-rut in semi-natural conditions.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 92 1 , Bison: mating and conservation in small populations. Columbia University Press.

Has Wisent a Hybrid Origin? January 22, Retrieved May 29, Acta Theriologica Sinica. Archived from the original on March 8, Molecular Biology and Evolution.

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Pleistocene mammals of North America 1st ed. New York: Columbia University Press. Rancho la Brea Bison. In: J.

Terra 30 2 : Shapiro Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. American Bison: A Natural History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

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Homosexual behaviour in animals. Cambridge University Press. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. American Midland Naturalist. To save the wild bison: life on the edge in Yellowstone.

University of Oklahoma Press. Smith; Gary Ferguson November 1, Decade of the Wolf: Returning the Wild to Yellowstone. Globe Pequot. Billings Gazette.

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Roe, Frank Gilbert. Shaw, James H. Zontek Ken Great Plains Quarterly. Bison bison category. Extant Artiodactyla species.

Suborder Ruminantia. Pronghorn A. Okapi O. Northern giraffe G. Anhui musk deer M. Water chevrotain H. Indian spotted chevrotain M. Java mouse-deer T.

Family Cervidae. Indian muntjac M. Tufted deer E. Fallow deer D. Chital A. Eld's deer P. Hog deer H. Sambar R. Red deer C.

Moose A. Water deer H. European roe deer C. Reindeer R. Taruca H. Red brocket M. Pampas deer O. Marsh deer B. White-tailed deer O.

Family Bovidae. Abbott's duiker C. Blue duiker P. Common duiker S. Roan antelope H. East African oryx O. Addax A. Upemba lechwe K. Southern reedbuck R.

Impala A. Grey rhebok P. Hirola B. Topi D. Hartebeest A. Black wildebeest C. Tibetan antelope P. Family Bovidae subfamily Caprinae.

Barbary sheep A. Takin B. Wild goat C. Japanese serow C. Nilgiri tahr H. Red goral N. Mountain goat O. Muskox O.

Argali O. Bharal P. Pyrenean chamois R. Family Bovidae subfamily Bovinae. Four-horned antelope T. Nilgai B.

Domestic water buffalo B. Banteng B. Kting voar P. Saola P. African buffalo S. American bison B. Sitatunga T.

Common eland T. Family Bovidae subfamily Antilopinae. Dibatag A. Springbok A. Blackbuck A. Mongalla gazelle E. Mountain gazelle G.

Gerenuk L. Dama gazelle N. Mongolian gazelle P. Saiga antelope S. Beira D. Günther's dik-dik M. Bates' pygmy antelope N. Klipspringer O.

Oribi O. Steenbok R. Suborder Suina. Buru babirusa B. Giant forest hog H. Desert warthog P. Pygmy hog P. Bushpig P. Palawan bearded pig S.

White-lipped peccary T. Chacoan peccary C. Collared peccary P. Suborder Tylopoda. Llama L. Whippomorpha unranked clade.

Hippopotamus H. Pygmy hippopotamus C. Hidden categories: CS1: long volume value Articles with short description Articles with 'species' microformats Commons category link is on Wikidata.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. Bubalus arnee Kerr , Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bubalus arnee. Wikispecies has information related to Bubalus arnee.

Okapia Okapi O. Moschus Anhui musk deer M. Hyemoschus Water chevrotain H. Large family listed below.

Alces Moose A. Hippotragus Roan antelope H. Kobus Upemba lechwe K. Aepyceros Impala A. Pelea Grey rhebok P.

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