Incinerator Deutsch

Incinerator Deutsch Beispiele aus dem Internet (nicht von der PONS Redaktion geprüft)

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für incinerator im Online-Wörterbuch brania.be (​Deutschwörterbuch). brania.be | Übersetzungen für 'incinerator' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "incinerator" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "waste incinerator" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzungen für „incinerator“ im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch (Springe zu Deutsch» Englisch). Ergebnis-Übersicht. in·cin·era·tor: Nomen; incinerator. in.

Incinerator Deutsch

Übersetzung von incinerator – Englisch–Deutsch Wörterbuch. incinerator. noun. ○. a furnace or other container for burning rubbish etc. Übersetzung für 'incinerator' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für incinerator im Online-Wörterbuch brania.be (​Deutschwörterbuch). Measurements of the emitted flue gases are made to check whether the emmision levels prescribed by governmental agencies are being observed. MERI supplies crematories for domestic animals as well as machinesfor the incineration of big animals, such as cows or camels. The oxygen analyzer : Essential in Beste Spielothek in Otterfing finden optimization of combustion processes and used daily in thousands of power plants and incinerators. Es ist Beste Spielothek in Lampersberg finden Fehler aufgetreten. In dieser Verbrennungsanlage sollen die CO2-Emissionen wesentlich verringert und die Basis nicht-fossiler Primärenergieträger zur Erzeugung von Dampf genutzt werden. Erst bei der Verbrennung wird das im Holz gespeicherte Kohlenstoffdioxid wieder freigesetzt. On the other hand, the greenhouse gases are substantially reduced, which influences the greenhouse Beste Spielothek in Romegg finden positively and the landfill volume is conserved by the recovery of recyclable fractions of incinerators. Ein Beispiel vorschlagen. Erste Verbrennungsanlagen Die Gruppe betreibt ihre ersten Beste Spielothek in Unterharmansedt finden. Übersetzung von incinerator Beste Spielothek in Dietrichsweiler finden Englisch—Deutsch Wörterbuch. Übersetzung Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme new Documents. Flue gases from garbage incinerators likewise contain raw materials. Die übrigen Komponenten werden in einer Verbrennungsanlage zur Energiegewinnung entsorgt. English But I believe that the proper route for disposal is incineration in a high temperature incinerator. Glass, paper and packaging are collected separately in Berlin. Incinerator Deutsch

Incinerator Deutsch "incinerator" auf Deutsch

It also contains regulations governing incinerator Beste Spielothek in Gramatl finden for waste and similar combustible materials thermal recycling. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Abfallverbrennungsofen ansehen 10 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Das Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz ist die Kurzbezeichnung für das deutsche Gesetz zum Schutz vor schädlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geräusche, Erschütterungen und ähnlichen Vorgängen. The Esports Dota 2 analyzer : Essential in the optimization of combustion processes and used daily in thousands of power plants and incinerators. Wie kann ich Übersetzungen in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen? Müllverbrennungsanlage f. Registrieren Sie sich für weitere Beispiele sehen Es ist einfach und kostenlos Beste Spielothek in Pausdorf finden Einloggen. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'incinerator' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Übersetzung für 'incinerator' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung von incinerator – Englisch–Deutsch Wörterbuch. incinerator. noun. ○. a furnace or other container for burning rubbish etc. Übersetzung im Kontext von „INCINERATOR“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: incinerator according, waste incinerator. Übersetzung für 'incinerator' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

Studies conducted by the US-EPA [19] demonstrated that one family using a burn barrel produced more emissions than an incineration plant disposing of metric tons short tons of waste per day by and five times that by due to increased chemicals in household trash and decreased emissions by municipal incinerators using better technology.

The same researchers found that their original estimates for the burn barrel were high, and that the incineration plant used for comparison represented a theoretical 'clean' plant rather than any existing facility.

Their later studies [21] found that burn barrels produced a median of Most of the improvement in U. The breakdown of dioxin requires exposure of the molecular ring to a sufficiently high temperature so as to trigger thermal breakdown of the strong molecular bonds holding it together.

Small pieces of fly ash may be somewhat thick, and too brief an exposure to high temperature may only degrade dioxin on the surface of the ash.

For a large volume air chamber, too brief an exposure may also result in only some of the exhaust gases reaching the full breakdown temperature.

For this reason there is also a time element to the temperature exposure to ensure heating completely through the thickness of the fly ash and the volume of waste gases.

There are trade-offs between increasing either the temperature or exposure time. Generally where the molecular breakdown temperature is higher, the exposure time for heating can be shorter, but excessively high temperatures can also cause wear and damage to other parts of the incineration equipment.

A side effect of breaking the strong molecular bonds of dioxin is the potential for breaking the bonds of nitrogen gas N 2 and oxygen gas O 2 in the supply air.

As the exhaust flow cools, these highly reactive detached atoms spontaneously reform bonds into reactive oxides such as NO x in the flue gas, which can result in smog formation and acid rain if they were released directly into the local environment.

These reactive oxides must be further neutralized with selective catalytic reduction SCR or selective non-catalytic reduction see below.

The temperatures needed to break down dioxin are typically not reached when burning plastics outdoors in a burn barrel or garbage pit, causing high dioxin emissions as mentioned above.

While plastic does usually burn in an open-air fire, the dioxins remain after combustion and either float off into the atmosphere, or may remain in the ash where it can be leached down into groundwater when rain falls on the ash pile.

Fortunately, dioxin and furan compounds bond very strongly to solid surfaces and are not dissolved by water, so leaching processes are limited to the first few millimeters below the ash pile.

The gas-phase dioxins can be substantially destroyed using catalysts, some of which can be present as part of the fabric filter bag structure.

They are equipped with auxiliary heaters to ensure this at all times. These are often fueled by oil or natural gas, and are normally only active for a very small fraction of the time.

Further, most modern incinerators utilize fabric filters often with Teflon membranes to enhance collection of sub-micron particles which can capture dioxins present in or on solid particles.

For very small municipal incinerators, the required temperature for thermal breakdown of dioxin may be reached using a high-temperature electrical heating element, plus a selective catalytic reduction stage.

Although dioxins and furans may be destroyed by combustion, their reformation by a process known as 'de novo synthesis' as the emission gases cool is a probable source of the dioxins measured in emission stack tests from plants that have high combustion temperatures held at long residence times.

As for other complete combustion processes, nearly all of the carbon content in the waste is emitted as CO 2 to the atmosphere. Since the global warming potential of methane is 34 and the weight of 62 cubic meters of methane at 25 degrees Celsius is In some countries, large amounts of landfill gas are collected.

Still the global warming potential of the landfill gas emitted to atmosphere is significant. In addition, nearly all biodegradable waste has biological origin.

This material has been formed by plants using atmospheric CO 2 typically within the last growing season. If these plants are regrown the CO 2 emitted from their combustion will be taken out from the atmosphere once more.

Such considerations are the main reason why several countries administrate incineration of biodegradable waste as renewable energy.

Different results for the CO 2 footprint of incineration can be reached with different assumptions. Local conditions such as limited local district heating demand, no fossil fuel generated electricity to replace or high levels of aluminium in the waste stream can decrease the CO 2 benefits of incineration.

The methodology and other assumptions may also influence the results significantly. For example, the methane emissions from landfills occurring at a later date may be neglected or given less weight, or biodegradable waste may not be considered CO 2 neutral.

A study by Eunomia Research and Consulting in on potential waste treatment technologies in London demonstrated that by applying several of these according to the authors unusual assumptions the average existing incineration plants performed poorly for CO 2 balance compared to the theoretical potential of other emerging waste treatment technologies.

Other gaseous emissions in the flue gas from incinerator furnaces include nitrogen oxides , sulfur dioxide , hydrochloric acid , heavy metals , and fine particles.

Of the heavy metals, mercury is a major concern due to its toxicity and high volatility, as essentially all mercury in the municipal waste stream may exit in emissions if not removed by emission controls.

The steam content in the flue may produce visible fume from the stack, which can be perceived as a visual pollution. It may be avoided by decreasing the steam content by flue-gas condensation and reheating, or by increasing the flue gas exit temperature well above its dew point.

Flue-gas condensation allows the latent heat of vaporization of the water to be recovered, subsequently increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant.

The quantity of pollutants in the flue gas from incineration plants may or may not be reduced by several processes, depending on the plant.

The latter are generally very efficient for collecting fine particles. In an investigation by the Ministry of the Environment of Denmark in , the average particulate emissions per energy content of incinerated waste from 16 Danish incinerators were below 2.

Detailed measurements of fine particles with sizes below 2. For ultra fine particles PM 1. Acid gas scrubbers are used to remove hydrochloric acid , nitric acid , hydrofluoric acid , mercury , lead and other heavy metals.

The efficiency of removal will depend on the specific equipment, the chemical composition of the waste, the design of the plant, the chemistry of reagents, and the ability of engineers to optimize these conditions, which may conflict for different pollutants.

Waste water from scrubbers must subsequently pass through a waste water treatment plant. Sulfur dioxide may also be removed by dry desulfurisation by injection limestone slurry into the flue gas before the particle filtration.

NO x is either reduced by catalytic reduction with ammonia in a catalytic converter selective catalytic reduction , SCR or by a high-temperature reaction with ammonia in the furnace selective non-catalytic reduction , SNCR.

Urea may be substituted for ammonia as the reducing reagent but must be supplied earlier in the process so that it can hydrolyze into ammonia.

Substitution of urea can reduce costs and potential hazards associated with storage of anhydrous ammonia.

Heavy metals are often adsorbed on injected active carbon powder, which is collected by particle filtration. Incineration produces fly ash and bottom ash just as is the case when coal is combusted.

At present although some historic samples tested by the incinerator operators' group would meet the being ecotoxic criteria at present the EA say "we have agreed" to regard incinerator bottom ash as "non-hazardous" until the testing programme is complete.

Odor pollution can be a problem with old-style incinerators, but odors and dust are extremely well controlled in newer incineration plants.

They receive and store the waste in an enclosed area with a negative pressure with the airflow being routed through the boiler which prevents unpleasant odors from escaping into the atmosphere.

However, not all plants are implemented this way, resulting in inconveniences in the locality. An issue that affects community relationships is the increased road traffic of waste collection vehicles to transport municipal waste to the incinerator.

Due to this reason, most incinerators are located in industrial areas. This problem can be avoided to an extent through the transport of waste by rail from transfer stations.

Use of incinerators for waste management is controversial. The debate over incinerators typically involves business interests representing both waste generators and incinerator firms , government regulators, environmental activists and local citizens who must weigh the economic appeal of local industrial activity with their concerns over health and environmental risk.

People and organizations professionally involved in this issue include the U. Environmental Protection Agency and a great many local and national air quality regulatory agencies worldwide.

The history of municipal solid waste MSW incineration is linked intimately to the history of landfills and other waste treatment technology.

The merits of incineration are inevitably judged in relation to the alternatives available. Since the s, recycling and other prevention measures have changed the context for such judgements.

Since the s alternative waste treatment technologies have been maturing and becoming viable. Incineration is a key process in the treatment of hazardous wastes and clinical wastes.

It is often imperative that medical waste be subjected to the high temperatures of incineration to destroy pathogens and toxic contamination it contains.

The first incinerator in the U. Ross founded one of the first hazardous waste management companies in the U.

He began Robert Ross Industrial Disposal because he saw an opportunity to meet the hazardous waste management needs of companies in northern Ohio.

In , the company built one of the first hazardous waste incinerators in the U. The first full-scale, municipally operated incineration facility in the U.

The plant is still in operation and produces refuse-derived fuel that is sent to local power plants for fuel. There are several environmental or waste management corporations that transport ultimately to an incinerator or cement kiln treatment center.

Clean Harbours has acquired many of the smaller, independently run facilities, accumulating 5—7 incinerators in the process across the U.

Several old generation incinerators have been closed; of the MSW incinerators in , only 89 remained by , and of the medical waste incinerators in , only remained in There has been renewed interest in incineration and other waste-to-energy technologies in the U.

In the U. However, many of these projects have faced continued political opposition in spite of renewed arguments for the greenhouse gas benefits of incineration and improved air pollution control and ash recycling.

In Europe, with the ban on landfilling untreated waste, [61] scores of incinerators have been built in the last decade, with more under construction.

Recently, a number of municipal governments have begun the process of contracting for the construction and operation of incinerators.

In Europe, some of the electricity generated from waste is deemed to be from a 'Renewable Energy Source RES and is thus eligible for tax credits if privately operated.

Also, some incinerators in Europe are equipped with waste recovery, allowing the reuse of ferrous and non-ferrous materials found in landfills.

The technology employed in the UK waste management industry has been greatly lagging behind that of Europe due to the wide availability of landfills.

This legislation is designed to reduce the release of greenhouse gases produced by landfills through the use of alternative methods of waste treatment.

It is the UK Government's position that incineration will play an increasingly large role in the treatment of municipal waste and supply of energy in the UK.

In , plans for potential incinerator locations exists for approximately sites. Under a new plan in June , a DEFRA-backed grant scheme The Farming and Forestry Improvement Scheme was set up to encourage the use of low-capacity incinerators on agricultural sites to improve their bio security.

A permit has recently been granted [71] for what would be the UK's largest waste incinerator in the centre of the Cambridge — Milton Keynes — Oxford corridor , in Bedfordshire.

Following the construction of a large incinerator at Greatmoor in Buckinghamshire , and plans to construct a further one near Bedford , [72] the Cambridge — Milton Keynes — Oxford corridor will become a major incineration hub in the UK.

Emergency incineration systems exist for the urgent and biosecure disposal of animals and their by-products following a mass mortality or disease outbreak.

An increase in regulation and enforcement from governments and institutions worldwide has been forced through public pressure and significant economic exposure.

One-third of global meat exports approx 6 million tonnes is affected by trade restrictions at any time and as such the focus of Governments, public bodies and commercial operators is on cleaner, safer and more robust methods of animal carcass disposal to contain and control disease.

Large-scale incineration systems are available from niche suppliers and are often bought by governments as a safety net in case of contagious outbreak.

Many are mobile and can be quickly deployed to locations requiring biosecure disposal. Small-scale incinerators exist for special purposes. For example, the small-scale [73] incinerators are aimed for hygienically safe destruction of medical waste in developing countries.

Small incinerators can be quickly deployed to remote areas where an outbreak has occurred to dispose of infected animals quickly and without the risk of cross contamination.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Incinerator. For other forms of waste plant that produces energy, see waste-to-energy.

For the Dew-Scented album, see Incinerate album. This section needs expansion with: more data and additional citations.

You can help by adding to it. January This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of incinerators in the UK.

University of Western Ontario. Archived from the original PDF on 5 December Danish Energy Authority. Archived from the original on 9 July Chartered Institution of Wastes Management.

Archived from the original PDF on 26 November Retrieved 29 November US EPA. December GeoScience Engineering. Oregon Department of Forestry.

Archived from the original on 5 January November Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 25 August Municipal Solid Waste Incineration.

HiTemp Technology. Archived from the original PDF on 28 June Refractories Handbook. Crown Andersen. Delaware Solid Waste Authority. Archived from the original on 18 March Bidding farewell to dioxin spouting" PDF.

September Atmospheric Environment. United States Environmental Protection Agency. February The Economist. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. Kenny R.

Michael T. Northern Territory Govt Australia. It enables our hospital to dispose of the medical waste in a safe manner. African Union, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The incinerator allows infectious waste at this hospital to be incinerated following WHO recommendations. I would highly recommend to seriously considering partnering with Elastec, as to date have had a concrete impact on our service to the worlds poor.

The Elastec Drug Terminator is a portable incinerator for the on-site disposal of evidence property and community take-back programs.

In addition to drugs, the Drug Terminator also burns other non-hazardous substances such as documents, plants, food, and lab materials with minimal environmental impact.

Environmentally safe, compact and easy to operate, our Municipal Waste Incinerator is a diesel-fueled waste incinerator for hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, laboratories, blood banks, police departments, airports, military bases, and veterinarians.

It has been used with great success in eliminating medical waste during Ebola outbreaks. Available in two sizes, our Municipal Waste Incinerator is capable of disposing of batch-loads of infectious and pathological waste.

Read our FAQ. A whirlwind of fire and intense heat is created inside the drum, burning refuse without smoke or smell. The SmartAsh is ideal for remote locations with limited facilities for disposing of waste, such as mining, military, camps, expedition bases, and remote communities, etc.

Elastec manufactures drug drop-off boxes that can be used in conjunction with either our Drug Terminator or Mediburn for take-back programs.

The boxes can be set up at locations to collect expired and unused prescription drugs so that they can safely be incinerated.

Our drug drop-off boxes can be painted or wrapped with graphics to suit the needs of your location. Each box has a lockable deposit door, retrieval door for emptying, and 4 bolt anchor holes in the base.

Contact us for more information. Request Information.

I would highly recommend to seriously considering partnering with Elastec, as to date have had a concrete impact on our service to the worlds poor.

The Elastec Drug Terminator is a portable incinerator for the on-site disposal of evidence property and community take-back programs.

In addition to drugs, the Drug Terminator also burns other non-hazardous substances such as documents, plants, food, and lab materials with minimal environmental impact.

Environmentally safe, compact and easy to operate, our Municipal Waste Incinerator is a diesel-fueled waste incinerator for hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, laboratories, blood banks, police departments, airports, military bases, and veterinarians.

It has been used with great success in eliminating medical waste during Ebola outbreaks. Available in two sizes, our Municipal Waste Incinerator is capable of disposing of batch-loads of infectious and pathological waste.

Read our FAQ. A whirlwind of fire and intense heat is created inside the drum, burning refuse without smoke or smell.

The SmartAsh is ideal for remote locations with limited facilities for disposing of waste, such as mining, military, camps, expedition bases, and remote communities, etc.

Elastec manufactures drug drop-off boxes that can be used in conjunction with either our Drug Terminator or Mediburn for take-back programs.

The boxes can be set up at locations to collect expired and unused prescription drugs so that they can safely be incinerated. Our drug drop-off boxes can be painted or wrapped with graphics to suit the needs of your location.

Each box has a lockable deposit door, retrieval door for emptying, and 4 bolt anchor holes in the base. Contact us for more information.

Request Information. Municipal Waste Incinerator. Mediburn Medical Waste Incinerator. Drug Terminator. Drug Terminator Incinerator The Elastec Drug Terminator is a portable incinerator for the on-site disposal of evidence property and community take-back programs.

Municipal Waste Incinerator Environmentally safe, compact and easy to operate, our Municipal Waste Incinerator is a diesel-fueled waste incinerator for hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, laboratories, blood banks, police departments, airports, military bases, and veterinarians.

Back to top. The waste is introduced by a waste crane through the "throat" at one end of the grate, from where it moves down over the descending grate to the ash pit in the other end.

Here the ash is removed through a water lock. Part of the combustion air primary combustion air is supplied through the grate from below. This air flow also has the purpose of cooling the grate itself.

Cooling is important for the mechanical strength of the grate, and many moving grates are also water-cooled internally. Secondary combustion air is supplied into the boiler at high speed through nozzles over the grate.

It facilitates complete combustion of the flue gases by introducing turbulence for better mixing and by ensuring a surplus of oxygen.

In order to comply with this at all times, it is required to install backup auxiliary burners often fueled by oil , which are fired into the boiler in case the heating value of the waste becomes too low to reach this temperature alone.

In Scandinavia , scheduled maintenance is always performed during summer, where the demand for district heating is low.

Often, incineration plants consist of several separate 'boiler lines' boilers and flue gas treatment plants , so that waste can continue to be received at one boiler line while the others are undergoing maintenance, repair, or upgrading.

The older and simpler kind of incinerator was a brick-lined cell with a fixed metal grate over a lower ash pit, with one opening in the top or side for loading and another opening in the side for removing incombustible solids called clinkers.

Many small incinerators formerly found in apartment houses have now been replaced by waste compactors. The rotary-kiln incinerator [12] is used by municipalities and by large industrial plants.

This design of incinerator has two chambers: a primary chamber and secondary chamber. The primary chamber in a rotary kiln incinerator consists of an inclined refractory lined cylindrical tube.

The inner refractory lining serves as sacrificial layer to protect the kiln structure. This refractory layer needs to be replaced from time to time.

In the primary chamber, there is conversion of solid fraction to gases, through volatilization, destructive distillation and partial combustion reactions.

The secondary chamber is necessary to complete gas phase combustion reactions. The clinkers spill out at the end of the cylinder.

A tall flue-gas stack, fan, or steam jet supplies the needed draft. Ash drops through the grate, but many particles are carried along with the hot gases.

The particles and any combustible gases may be combusted in an "afterburner". A strong airflow is forced through a sandbed.

The air seeps through the sand until a point is reached where the sand particles separate to let the air through and mixing and churning occurs, thus a fluidized bed is created and fuel and waste can now be introduced.

The bed is thereby violently mixed and agitated keeping small inert particles and air in a fluid-like state. This allows all of the mass of waste, fuel and sand to be fully circulated through the furnace.

Furniture factory sawdust incinerators need much attention as these have to handle resin powder and many flammable substances.

Controlled combustion, burn back prevention systems are essential as dust when suspended resembles the fire catch phenomenon of any liquid petroleum gas.

The heat produced by an incinerator can be used to generate steam which may then be used to drive a turbine in order to produce electricity.

Incineration has a number of outputs such as the ash and the emission to the atmosphere of flue gas. Before the flue gas cleaning system , if installed, the flue gases may contain particulate matter , heavy metals , dioxins , furans , sulfur dioxide , and hydrochloric acid.

If plants have inadequate flue gas cleaning, these outputs may add a significant pollution component to stack emissions.

In a study from , Delaware Solid Waste Authority found that, for same amount of produced energy, incineration plants emitted fewer particles, hydrocarbons and less SO 2 , HCl, CO and NO x than coal-fired power plants, but more than natural gas—fired power plants.

The most publicized concerns about the incineration of municipal solid wastes MSW involve the fear that it produces significant amounts of dioxin and furan emissions.

The EPA announced in that the safe limit for human oral consumption is 0. In , the Ministry of the Environment of Germany, where there were 66 incinerators at that time, estimated that " Chimneys and tiled stoves in private households alone discharge approximately 20 times more dioxin into the environment than incineration plants.

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency , [9] the combustion percentages of the total dioxin and furan inventory from all known and estimated sources in the U.

Thus, the controlled combustion of waste accounted for In , before the governmental regulations required the use of emission controls, there was a total of 8, Today, the total emissions from the plants are Studies conducted by the US-EPA [19] demonstrated that one family using a burn barrel produced more emissions than an incineration plant disposing of metric tons short tons of waste per day by and five times that by due to increased chemicals in household trash and decreased emissions by municipal incinerators using better technology.

The same researchers found that their original estimates for the burn barrel were high, and that the incineration plant used for comparison represented a theoretical 'clean' plant rather than any existing facility.

Their later studies [21] found that burn barrels produced a median of Most of the improvement in U. The breakdown of dioxin requires exposure of the molecular ring to a sufficiently high temperature so as to trigger thermal breakdown of the strong molecular bonds holding it together.

Small pieces of fly ash may be somewhat thick, and too brief an exposure to high temperature may only degrade dioxin on the surface of the ash.

For a large volume air chamber, too brief an exposure may also result in only some of the exhaust gases reaching the full breakdown temperature.

For this reason there is also a time element to the temperature exposure to ensure heating completely through the thickness of the fly ash and the volume of waste gases.

There are trade-offs between increasing either the temperature or exposure time. Generally where the molecular breakdown temperature is higher, the exposure time for heating can be shorter, but excessively high temperatures can also cause wear and damage to other parts of the incineration equipment.

A side effect of breaking the strong molecular bonds of dioxin is the potential for breaking the bonds of nitrogen gas N 2 and oxygen gas O 2 in the supply air.

As the exhaust flow cools, these highly reactive detached atoms spontaneously reform bonds into reactive oxides such as NO x in the flue gas, which can result in smog formation and acid rain if they were released directly into the local environment.

These reactive oxides must be further neutralized with selective catalytic reduction SCR or selective non-catalytic reduction see below. The temperatures needed to break down dioxin are typically not reached when burning plastics outdoors in a burn barrel or garbage pit, causing high dioxin emissions as mentioned above.

While plastic does usually burn in an open-air fire, the dioxins remain after combustion and either float off into the atmosphere, or may remain in the ash where it can be leached down into groundwater when rain falls on the ash pile.

Fortunately, dioxin and furan compounds bond very strongly to solid surfaces and are not dissolved by water, so leaching processes are limited to the first few millimeters below the ash pile.

The gas-phase dioxins can be substantially destroyed using catalysts, some of which can be present as part of the fabric filter bag structure.

They are equipped with auxiliary heaters to ensure this at all times. These are often fueled by oil or natural gas, and are normally only active for a very small fraction of the time.

Further, most modern incinerators utilize fabric filters often with Teflon membranes to enhance collection of sub-micron particles which can capture dioxins present in or on solid particles.

For very small municipal incinerators, the required temperature for thermal breakdown of dioxin may be reached using a high-temperature electrical heating element, plus a selective catalytic reduction stage.

Although dioxins and furans may be destroyed by combustion, their reformation by a process known as 'de novo synthesis' as the emission gases cool is a probable source of the dioxins measured in emission stack tests from plants that have high combustion temperatures held at long residence times.

As for other complete combustion processes, nearly all of the carbon content in the waste is emitted as CO 2 to the atmosphere.

Since the global warming potential of methane is 34 and the weight of 62 cubic meters of methane at 25 degrees Celsius is In some countries, large amounts of landfill gas are collected.

Still the global warming potential of the landfill gas emitted to atmosphere is significant. In addition, nearly all biodegradable waste has biological origin.

This material has been formed by plants using atmospheric CO 2 typically within the last growing season.

If these plants are regrown the CO 2 emitted from their combustion will be taken out from the atmosphere once more. Such considerations are the main reason why several countries administrate incineration of biodegradable waste as renewable energy.

Different results for the CO 2 footprint of incineration can be reached with different assumptions. Local conditions such as limited local district heating demand, no fossil fuel generated electricity to replace or high levels of aluminium in the waste stream can decrease the CO 2 benefits of incineration.

The methodology and other assumptions may also influence the results significantly. For example, the methane emissions from landfills occurring at a later date may be neglected or given less weight, or biodegradable waste may not be considered CO 2 neutral.

A study by Eunomia Research and Consulting in on potential waste treatment technologies in London demonstrated that by applying several of these according to the authors unusual assumptions the average existing incineration plants performed poorly for CO 2 balance compared to the theoretical potential of other emerging waste treatment technologies.

Other gaseous emissions in the flue gas from incinerator furnaces include nitrogen oxides , sulfur dioxide , hydrochloric acid , heavy metals , and fine particles.

Of the heavy metals, mercury is a major concern due to its toxicity and high volatility, as essentially all mercury in the municipal waste stream may exit in emissions if not removed by emission controls.

The steam content in the flue may produce visible fume from the stack, which can be perceived as a visual pollution. It may be avoided by decreasing the steam content by flue-gas condensation and reheating, or by increasing the flue gas exit temperature well above its dew point.

Flue-gas condensation allows the latent heat of vaporization of the water to be recovered, subsequently increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant.

The quantity of pollutants in the flue gas from incineration plants may or may not be reduced by several processes, depending on the plant.

The latter are generally very efficient for collecting fine particles. In an investigation by the Ministry of the Environment of Denmark in , the average particulate emissions per energy content of incinerated waste from 16 Danish incinerators were below 2.

Detailed measurements of fine particles with sizes below 2. For ultra fine particles PM 1. Acid gas scrubbers are used to remove hydrochloric acid , nitric acid , hydrofluoric acid , mercury , lead and other heavy metals.

The efficiency of removal will depend on the specific equipment, the chemical composition of the waste, the design of the plant, the chemistry of reagents, and the ability of engineers to optimize these conditions, which may conflict for different pollutants.

Waste water from scrubbers must subsequently pass through a waste water treatment plant. Sulfur dioxide may also be removed by dry desulfurisation by injection limestone slurry into the flue gas before the particle filtration.

NO x is either reduced by catalytic reduction with ammonia in a catalytic converter selective catalytic reduction , SCR or by a high-temperature reaction with ammonia in the furnace selective non-catalytic reduction , SNCR.

Urea may be substituted for ammonia as the reducing reagent but must be supplied earlier in the process so that it can hydrolyze into ammonia. Substitution of urea can reduce costs and potential hazards associated with storage of anhydrous ammonia.

Heavy metals are often adsorbed on injected active carbon powder, which is collected by particle filtration. Incineration produces fly ash and bottom ash just as is the case when coal is combusted.

At present although some historic samples tested by the incinerator operators' group would meet the being ecotoxic criteria at present the EA say "we have agreed" to regard incinerator bottom ash as "non-hazardous" until the testing programme is complete.

Odor pollution can be a problem with old-style incinerators, but odors and dust are extremely well controlled in newer incineration plants. They receive and store the waste in an enclosed area with a negative pressure with the airflow being routed through the boiler which prevents unpleasant odors from escaping into the atmosphere.

However, not all plants are implemented this way, resulting in inconveniences in the locality. An issue that affects community relationships is the increased road traffic of waste collection vehicles to transport municipal waste to the incinerator.

Due to this reason, most incinerators are located in industrial areas. This problem can be avoided to an extent through the transport of waste by rail from transfer stations.

Use of incinerators for waste management is controversial. The debate over incinerators typically involves business interests representing both waste generators and incinerator firms , government regulators, environmental activists and local citizens who must weigh the economic appeal of local industrial activity with their concerns over health and environmental risk.

People and organizations professionally involved in this issue include the U. Environmental Protection Agency and a great many local and national air quality regulatory agencies worldwide.

The history of municipal solid waste MSW incineration is linked intimately to the history of landfills and other waste treatment technology.

The merits of incineration are inevitably judged in relation to the alternatives available. Since the s, recycling and other prevention measures have changed the context for such judgements.

Since the s alternative waste treatment technologies have been maturing and becoming viable. Incineration is a key process in the treatment of hazardous wastes and clinical wastes.

It is often imperative that medical waste be subjected to the high temperatures of incineration to destroy pathogens and toxic contamination it contains.

The first incinerator in the U. Ross founded one of the first hazardous waste management companies in the U.

He began Robert Ross Industrial Disposal because he saw an opportunity to meet the hazardous waste management needs of companies in northern Ohio.

In , the company built one of the first hazardous waste incinerators in the U. The first full-scale, municipally operated incineration facility in the U.

The plant is still in operation and produces refuse-derived fuel that is sent to local power plants for fuel.

There are several environmental or waste management corporations that transport ultimately to an incinerator or cement kiln treatment center.

Clean Harbours has acquired many of the smaller, independently run facilities, accumulating 5—7 incinerators in the process across the U. Several old generation incinerators have been closed; of the MSW incinerators in , only 89 remained by , and of the medical waste incinerators in , only remained in There has been renewed interest in incineration and other waste-to-energy technologies in the U.

In the U. However, many of these projects have faced continued political opposition in spite of renewed arguments for the greenhouse gas benefits of incineration and improved air pollution control and ash recycling.

In Europe, with the ban on landfilling untreated waste, [61] scores of incinerators have been built in the last decade, with more under construction.

Recently, a number of municipal governments have begun the process of contracting for the construction and operation of incinerators. In Europe, some of the electricity generated from waste is deemed to be from a 'Renewable Energy Source RES and is thus eligible for tax credits if privately operated.

Also, some incinerators in Europe are equipped with waste recovery, allowing the reuse of ferrous and non-ferrous materials found in landfills.

The technology employed in the UK waste management industry has been greatly lagging behind that of Europe due to the wide availability of landfills.

This legislation is designed to reduce the release of greenhouse gases produced by landfills through the use of alternative methods of waste treatment.

It is the UK Government's position that incineration will play an increasingly large role in the treatment of municipal waste and supply of energy in the UK.

In , plans for potential incinerator locations exists for approximately sites. Under a new plan in June , a DEFRA-backed grant scheme The Farming and Forestry Improvement Scheme was set up to encourage the use of low-capacity incinerators on agricultural sites to improve their bio security.

A permit has recently been granted [71] for what would be the UK's largest waste incinerator in the centre of the Cambridge — Milton Keynes — Oxford corridor , in Bedfordshire.

Following the construction of a large incinerator at Greatmoor in Buckinghamshire , and plans to construct a further one near Bedford , [72] the Cambridge — Milton Keynes — Oxford corridor will become a major incineration hub in the UK.

Emergency incineration systems exist for the urgent and biosecure disposal of animals and their by-products following a mass mortality or disease outbreak.

An increase in regulation and enforcement from governments and institutions worldwide has been forced through public pressure and significant economic exposure.

One-third of global meat exports approx 6 million tonnes is affected by trade restrictions at any time and as such the focus of Governments, public bodies and commercial operators is on cleaner, safer and more robust methods of animal carcass disposal to contain and control disease.

Large-scale incineration systems are available from niche suppliers and are often bought by governments as a safety net in case of contagious outbreak.

Many are mobile and can be quickly deployed to locations requiring biosecure disposal. Small-scale incinerators exist for special purposes.

For example, the small-scale [73] incinerators are aimed for hygienically safe destruction of medical waste in developing countries.

Incinerator Deutsch - Übersetzungen und Beispiele

Combustion occurs in the incinerator 1 without natural air. Auch die Abgase von Müllverbrennungsanlagen enthalten ebenfalls Rohstoffe. In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. Mehr lesen. Das Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz ist die Kurzbezeichnung für das deutsche Gesetz zum Schutz vor schädlichen Umwelteinwirkungen durch Luftverunreinigungen, Geräusche, Erschütterungen und ähnlichen Vorgängen..

Incinerator Deutsch Video

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