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For children, Shaker life was structured, safe and predictable, with no shortage of adults who cared about their young charges. When Shaker youngsters, girls and boys, reached the age of 21, they were free to leave or to remain with the Shakers.
Unwilling to remain celibate, many chose to leave; today there are thousands of descendants of Shaker-raised seceders.
Shaker religion valued women and men equally in religious leadership. The church was hierarchical, and at each level women and men shared authority.
This was reflective of the Shaker belief that God was both female and male. They believed men and women were equal in the sight of God, and should be treated equally on earth, too.
Thus two Elders and two Eldresses formed the Ministry at the top of the administrative structure.
Two lower-ranking Elders and two Eldresses led each family, women overseeing women and men overseeing men.
In their labor, Shakers followed traditional gender work-related roles. Their homes were segregated by sex, as were women and men's work areas.
Women worked indoors spinning, weaving, cooking, sewing, cleaning, washing, and making or packaging goods for sale. In good weather, groups of Shaker women were outdoors, gardening and gathering wild herbs for sale or home consumption.
Men worked in the fields doing farm work and in their shops at crafts and trades. This allowed the continuation of church leadership when there was a shortage of men.
Shakers worshipped in meetinghouses painted white and unadorned; pulpits and decorations were eschewed as worldly things.
In meeting, they marched, sang, danced, and sometimes turned, twitched, jerked, or shouted. The earliest Shaker worship services were unstructured, loud, chaotic and emotional.
However, Shakers later developed precisely choreographed dances and orderly marches accompanied by symbolic gestures. Many outsiders disapproved of or mocked Shakers' mode of worship without understanding the symbolism of their movements or the content of their songs.
The Shakers built more than twenty communities in the United States. Women preached and received revelations as the Spirit fell upon them.
Thriving on the religious enthusiasm of the first and second Great Awakenings , the Shakers declared their messianic, communitarian message with significant response.
One early convert observed: "The wisdom of their instructions, the purity of their doctrine, their Christ-like deportment, and the simplicity of their manners, all appeared truly apostolical.
Preaching in their communities knew no boundaries of gender, social class, or education. The communality of the Believers was an economic success, and their cleanliness, honesty and frugality received the highest praise.
All Shaker villages ran farms, using the latest scientific methods in agriculture. They raised most of their own food, so farming, and preserving the produce required to feed them through the winter, had to be priorities.
Their livestock were fat and healthy, and their barns were commended for convenience and efficiency. When not doing farm work, Shaker brethren pursued a variety of trades and hand crafts, many documented by Isaac N.
When not doing housework, Shaker sisters did likewise, spinning, weaving, sewing, and making sale goods. Shakers ran a variety of businesses to support their communities.
Many Shaker villages had their own tanneries, sold The Shaker goal in their labor was perfection. Ann Lee's followers preserved her admonitions about work:.
Mother Ann also cautioned them against getting into debt. Shaker craftsmen were known for a style of Shaker furniture that was plain in style, durable, and functional.
They were so successful that several furniture companies produced their own versions of "Shaker" chairs. Because of the quality of their craftsmanship, original Shaker furniture is costly.
Shakers won respect and admiration for their productive farms and orderly communities. Their industry brought about many inventions like Babbitt metal , the rotary harrow , the circular saw , the clothespin , the Shaker peg, the flat broom , the wheel-driven washing machine , a machine for setting teeth in textile cards, a threshing machine, metal pens, a new type of fire engine, a machine for matching boards, numerous innovations in waterworks, planing machinery, a hernia truss, silk reeling machinery, small looms for weaving palm leaf, machines for processing broom corn, ball-and-socket tilters for chair legs, and a number of other useful inventions.
Shakers were the first large producers of medicinal herbs in the United States, and pioneers in the sale of seeds in paper packets. The Shakers believed in the value of hard work and kept comfortably busy.
Mother Ann said: "Labor to make the way of God your own; let it be your inheritance , your treasure , your occupation, your daily calling".
The Shakers' dedication to hard work and perfection has resulted in a unique range of architecture, furniture and handicraft styles.
They designed their furniture with care, believing that making something well was in itself, "an act of prayer".
Before the late 18th century, they rarely fashioned items with elaborate details or extra decoration, but only made things for their intended uses.
The ladder-back chair was a popular piece of furniture. Shaker craftsmen made most things out of pine or other inexpensive woods and hence their furniture was light in color and weight.
The earliest Shaker buildings late 18th — early 19th century in the northeast were timber or stone buildings built in a plain but elegant New England colonial style.
For example, they had a "peg rail", a continuous wooden device like a pelmet with hooks running all along it near the lintel level. They used the pegs to hang up clothes, hats, and very light furniture pieces such as chairs when not in use.
The simple architecture of their homes, meeting houses, and barns has had a lasting influence on American architecture and design. There is a collection of furniture and utensils at Hancock Shaker Village outside of Pittsfield, Massachusetts that is famous for its elegance and practicality.
At the end of the 19th century, however, Shakers adopted some aspects of Victorian decor, such as ornate carved furniture, patterned linoleum, and cabbage-rose wallpaper.
Examples are on display in the Hancock Shaker Village Trustees' Office, a formerly spare, plain building "improved" with ornate additions such as fish-scale siding, bay windows, porches, and a tower.
By the middle of the 20th century, as the Shaker communities themselves were disappearing, some American collectors whose visual tastes were formed by the stark aspects of the modernist movement found themselves drawn to the spare artifacts of Shaker culture, in which " form follows function " was also clearly expressed.
Other artifacts of Shaker culture are their spirit drawings, dances, and songs, which are important genres of Shaker folk art.
Doris Humphrey , an innovator in technique, choreography, and theory of dance movement, made a full theatrical art with her dance entitled Dance of The Chosen, which depicted Shaker religious fervor.
The Shakers composed thousands of songs, and also created many dances; both were an important part of the Shaker worship services. In Shaker society, a spiritual "gift" could also be a musical revelation, and they considered it important to record musical inspirations as they occurred.
Scribes, many of whom had no formal musical training, used a form of music notation called the letteral system. Many of the lyrics to Shaker tunes consist of syllables and words from unknown tongues, the musical equivalent of glossolalia.
It has been surmised that many of them were imitated from the sounds of Native American languages, as well as from the songs of African slaves, especially in the southernmost of the Shaker communities [ citation needed ] , but in fact the melodic material is derived from European scales and modes.
Most early Shaker music is monodic, that is to say, composed of a single melodic line with no harmonization. The tunes and scales recall the folksongs of the British Isles, but since the music was written down and carefully preserved, it is "art" music of a special kind rather than folklore.
Many melodies are of extraordinary grace and beauty, and the Shaker song repertoire, though still relatively little known, is an important part of the American cultural heritage and of world religious music in general.
Shakers' earliest hymns were shared by word of mouth and letters circulated among their villages. Many Believers wrote out the lyrics in their own manuscript hymnals.
In , they published Millennial Praises , a hymnal containing only lyrics. After the Civil War, the Shakers published hymnbooks with both lyrics and music in conventional four-part harmonies.
These works are less strikingly original than the earlier, monodic repertoire. The songs, hymns, and anthems were sung by the Shakers usually at the beginning of their Sunday worship.
Their last hymnbook was published in at Canterbury, New Hampshire. The surviving Shakers sing songs drawn from both the earlier repertoire and the four part songbooks.
They perform all of these unaccompanied, in single-line unison singing. The many recent, harmonized arrangements of older Shaker songs for choirs and instrumental groups mark a departure from traditional Shaker practice.
Many contemporary Christian denominations incorporate this tune into hymnals , under various names, including " Lord of the Dance ", adapted in by English poet and songwriter Sydney Carter.
Some scholars, such as Daniel W. Patterson and Roger Lee Hall , have compiled books of Shaker songs, and groups have been formed to sing the songs and perform the dances.
The most extensive recordings of the Shakers singing their own music were made between and and released on a 2-CD set with illustrated booklet, Let Zion Move: Music of the Shakers.
Two widely distributed commercial recordings by The Boston Camerata , "Simple Gifts" and "The Golden Harvest" , were recorded at the Shaker community of Sabbathday Lake, Maine, with active cooperation from the surviving Shakers, whose singing can be heard at several points on both recordings.
Aaron Copland 's iconic ballet score Appalachian Spring , written for Martha Graham , uses the now famous Shaker tune " Simple Gifts " as the basis of its finale.
Given to Graham with the working title "Ballet for Martha", it was named by her for the scenario she had in mind, though Copland often said he was thinking of neither Appalachia nor a spring while he wrote it.
Laboring Songs, a piece composed by Dan Welcher in for large wind ensemble, is based upon traditional shaker tunes including "Turn to the Right" and "Come Life, Shaker Life".
Shaker lifestyle and tradition is celebrated in Arlene Hutton 's play As It Is in Heaven , which is a re-creation of a decisive time in the history of the Shakers.
Born in Louisiana and raised in Florida, Lincks was inspired to write the play after visiting the Pleasant Hills Shaker village in Harrodsburg, Kentucky, a restored community that the Shakers occupied for more than a century, before abandoning it in because of the inability of the sect to attract new converts.
Novelist John Fowles wrote in A Maggot , a postmodern historical novel culminating in the birth of Ann Lee, and describing early Shakers in England.
In the Finnish choreographer Tero Saarinen and Boston Camerata music director Joel Cohen created a live performance work with dance and music entitled "Borrowed Light".
While all the music is Shaker song performed in a largely traditional manner, the dance intermingles only certain elements of Shaker practice and belief with Saarinen's original choreographic ideas, and with distinctive costumes and lighting.
The lifestyle and philosophy of the Shakers and their matriarch Ann Lee are recurring themes in her work. New Lebanon, New York, Shakers began keeping school in Certified as a public school by the state of New York beginning in , the teachers operated on the Lancastrian system , which was considered advanced for its time.
Boys attended class during the winter and the girls in the summer. The first Shaker schools taught reading, spelling, oration, arithmetic and manners, but later diversified their coursework to include music, algebra, astronomy, and agricultural chemistry.
Non-Shaker parents respected the Shakers' schooling so much that they often took advantage of schools that the Shaker villages provided, sending their children there for an education.
State inspectors and other outsiders visited the schools and made favorable comments on teachers and students. Turnover was high; the group reached maximum size of about 5, full members in ,  and 6, believers at the peak of the Shaker movement.
The Shaker communities continued to lose members, partly through attrition, since believers did not give birth to children, and also due to economics; hand-made products by Shakers were not as competitive as mass-produced products and individuals moved to the cities for better livelihoods.
There were only 12 Shaker communities left by In , after "months of prayer", Eldresses Gertrude, Emma, and Ida, leaders of the United Society of Believers in Canterbury Shaker Village , voted to close the Shaker Covenant, the document which all new members need to sign to become members of the Shakers.
Membership is closed forever. However, Shaker covenants lack a "sunset clause" and today's Shakers of Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village welcome sincere new converts to Shakerism into the society: .
If someone wants to become a Shaker, and the Shakers assent, the would-be member can move into the dwelling house. If the novices, as they are called, stay a week, they sign an articles of agreement, which protects the colony from being sued for lost wages.
After a year, the Shakers will take a vote whether to allow the novice in, but it takes another four years to be granted full Shaker status in sharing in the colony's finances and administrative and worship decisions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Shaker disambiguation. Christian monastic denomination.
Further information: Early chronology of Shakers. Main article: Ann Lee. Main article: Lucy Wright. Main article: Era of Manifestations.
A two-sheet religious chart intended to further Shaker education, by Jacob Skeen, Main article: Shaker communities. See also: Shaker furniture.
Other religions were pacifists who eschewed violence and war, including the Shakers. Retrieved December 13, Shakers: Compendium of the Origin, History Religious and Social Ritual: Interdisciplinary Explorations.
SUNY Press; Women and Redemption: A Theological History. Fortress Press; Enfield, Connecticut: Stories Carved in Stone.
Dog Pond Press; January 1, Whittaker, J. Hocknell, J. Meacham, and Lucy Wright. Appleton; The Making of the English Working Class.
IICA; Associated Press. October 4, Retrieved August 30, Walkley, printer; Taunton Press; Schorsch and Ruth Wolfe. February 23, Retrieved March 23, Oxford University Press; Retrieved December 24, The Clarion.
Al Jazeera. Retrieved June 19, December 17, Retrieved October 28, January 18, The Conversation. Retrieved August 28, However, the members at Sabbathday Lake stressed the autonomy of each local community.
Quietly, a few younger people became associated with the Maine community in the s through the s. The two remaining members of this community, Arnold Hadd and June Carpenter, are listed as members today.
Busted Halo. Hadd and the other Shakers are not giving up. They are open to converts and average two inquiries a week.
September 28, The A to Z of the Shakers. Scarecrow Press. Van Demark, ed. Clinton, N. Couper Press, Records Book No.
May 8, Retrieved January 18, Andrews, The People Called Shakers. Wergland, Visiting the Shakers, — Clinton, N. Stein, The Shaker Experience in America , Talcott and J.
Deming, Junrs. Grant and Douglas R. Stephen Miller. UPNE; 1 January Hancock, Mass. Amherst, Mass. Roger L.
American Music Preservation. March 26, Retrieved February 1, Some Shaker school records are extant. Youngs et al. Design: An Illustrated Historical Overview.
Koln: DuMont Buchverlag. Schenectady Gazette. Retrieved February 22, — via Google Newspapers. January 3, Times Union.
Retrieved January 3, Andrews, Edward Deming. Dover Publications, NY. Bixby, Brian L. February 1, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Duffield, Holley Gene. Historical Dictionary of the Shakers. Scarecrow Press, Garrett, Clarke. Origins of the Shakers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, and Johnson, Theodore E.
Volume 7. Madden; Etta M. Morgan, John H. Bristol, IN: Quill Books, Murray John E. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34 : 35— Beirut - Lebanon.
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