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It also contains experimental support for using vfork 2 with system and spawn , and added support for the Unicode 7.

The 2. On top of that come a lot of performance improvements like faster block passing 3 times faster , faster Mutexes, faster ERB templates and improvements on some concatenation methods.

Matsumoto has said that Ruby is designed for programmer productivity and fun, following the principles of good user interface design.

That is the primary purpose of Ruby language. Often people, especially computer engineers, focus on the machines. They think, "By doing this, the machine will run fast.

By doing this, the machine will run more effectively. By doing this, the machine will something something something. But in fact we need to focus on humans, on how humans care about doing programming or operating the application of the machines.

We are the masters. They are the slaves. Ruby is said to follow the principle of least astonishment POLA , meaning that the language should behave in such a way as to minimize confusion for experienced users.

Matsumoto has said his primary design goal was to make a language that he himself enjoyed using, by minimizing programmer work and possible confusion.

He has said that he had not applied the principle of least astonishment to the design of Ruby, [91] but nevertheless the phrase has come to be closely associated with the Ruby programming language.

The phrase has itself been a source of surprise, as novice users may take it to mean that Ruby's behaviors try to closely match behaviors familiar from other languages.

In a May discussion on the newsgroup comp. If that personal standard remains consistent, there would be few surprises for those familiar with the standard.

Matsumoto defined it this way in an interview: [91]. Everyone has an individual background. Someone may come from Python, someone else may come from Perl, and they may be surprised by different aspects of the language.

Then they come up to me and say, 'I was surprised by this feature of the language, so Ruby violates the principle of least surprise. The principle of least surprise is not for you only.

The principle of least surprise means principle of least my surprise. And it means the principle of least surprise after you learn Ruby very well.

Ruby is object-oriented : every value is an object, including classes and instances of types that many other languages designate as primitives such as integers , booleans, and " null ".

Variables always hold references to objects. Every function is a method and methods are always called on an object. Methods defined at the top level scope become methods of the Object class.

Since this class is an ancestor of every other class, such methods can be called on any object.

They are also visible in all scopes, effectively serving as "global" procedures. Ruby supports inheritance with dynamic dispatch , mixins and singleton methods belonging to, and defined for, a single instance rather than being defined on the class.

Though Ruby does not support multiple inheritance , classes can import modules as mixins. It has support for introspection , reflection and metaprogramming , as well as support for interpreter-based [99] threads.

Ruby features dynamic typing , and supports parametric polymorphism. According to the Ruby FAQ, the syntax is similar to Perl and the semantics are similar to Smalltalk , but it differs greatly from Python.

The syntax of Ruby is broadly similar to that of Perl and Python. Class and method definitions are signaled by keywords, whereas code blocks can be both be defined by keywords or braces.

In contrast to Perl, variables are not obligatorily prefixed with a sigil. When used, the sigil changes the semantics of scope of the variable.

For practical purposes there is no distinction between expressions and statements. Unlike Python, indentation is not significant.

As invocation of these methods does not require the use of parentheses, it is trivial to change an instance variable into a full function, without modifying a single line of calling code or having to do any refactoring achieving similar functionality to C and VB.

NET property members. Python's property descriptors are similar, but come with a trade-off in the development process.

If one begins in Python by using a publicly exposed instance variable, and later changes the implementation to use a private instance variable exposed through a property descriptor, code internal to the class may need to be adjusted to use the private variable rather than the public property.

Ruby's design forces all instance variables to be private, but also provides a simple way to declare set and get methods.

This is in keeping with the idea that in Ruby, one never directly accesses the internal members of a class from outside the class; rather, one passes a message to the class and receives a response.

See the Examples section below for samples of code demonstrating Ruby syntax. The Ruby official distribution also includes irb , an interactive command-line interpreter that can be used to test code quickly.

The following code fragment represents a sample session using irb :. Classic Hello world example:. Strings support variable interpolation :. The following assignments are equivalent and produce raw strings :.

Constructing and using an associative array in Ruby, called a hash :. A code block can be passed to a method as an optional block argument.

Many built-in methods have such arguments:. Parameter-passing a block to be a closure :. Creating an anonymous function :.

Returning closures from a method:. A method such as inject can accept both a parameter and a block. The inject method iterates over each member of a list, performing some function on it while retaining an aggregate.

This is analogous to the foldl function in functional programming languages. For example:. On the first pass, the block receives 10 the argument to inject as sum , and 1 the first element of the array as element.

This returns 11, which then becomes sum on the next pass. It is added to 3 to get 14, which is then added to 5 on the third pass, to finally return The following code defines a class named Person.

The last evaluated statement in a method is its return value, allowing the omission of an explicit return statement. In Ruby, classes are never closed: methods can always be added to an existing class.

This applies to all classes, including the standard, built-in classes. All that is needed to do is open up a class definition for an existing class, and the new contents specified will be added to the existing contents.

A simple example of adding a new method to the standard library's Time class:. Adding methods to previously defined classes is often called monkey-patching.

If performed recklessly, the practice can lead to both behavior collisions with subsequent unexpected results and code scalability problems.

Since Ruby 2. This last construct is useful when raising an instance of a custom exception class featuring a constructor that takes more than one argument:.

If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again.

All releases are PGP signed for security. Instructions on how to import my PGP key can be found on my blog. To verify that a release was not tampered with:.

There is a FreeBSD port of ruby-install which can be copied into the local ports tree. Rubies older than 1. Rubinius 1. Skip to content.

Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. It is simple, straightforward, and extensible. There are some other branches under development.

Try the following command to see the list of branches:. There is a mailing list to discuss Ruby. To subscribe to this list, please send the following phrase:.

Some C compiler flags may be added by default depending on your environment. Optionally, run ' make check ' to check whether the compiled Ruby interpreter works well.

If you see the message " check succeeded ", your Ruby works as it should hopefully. If Ruby's API version is ' x.

Read HowToReport for more information. Skip to content. The Ruby Programming Language [mirror] www.

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Many built-in methods have such arguments:. Parameter-passing a block to be a closure :. Creating an anonymous function :.

Returning closures from a method:. A method such as inject can accept both a parameter and a block. The inject method iterates over each member of a list, performing some function on it while retaining an aggregate.

This is analogous to the foldl function in functional programming languages. For example:. On the first pass, the block receives 10 the argument to inject as sum , and 1 the first element of the array as element.

This returns 11, which then becomes sum on the next pass. It is added to 3 to get 14, which is then added to 5 on the third pass, to finally return The following code defines a class named Person.

The last evaluated statement in a method is its return value, allowing the omission of an explicit return statement.

In Ruby, classes are never closed: methods can always be added to an existing class. This applies to all classes, including the standard, built-in classes.

All that is needed to do is open up a class definition for an existing class, and the new contents specified will be added to the existing contents.

A simple example of adding a new method to the standard library's Time class:. Adding methods to previously defined classes is often called monkey-patching.

If performed recklessly, the practice can lead to both behavior collisions with subsequent unexpected results and code scalability problems. Since Ruby 2.

This last construct is useful when raising an instance of a custom exception class featuring a constructor that takes more than one argument:.

Exceptions are handled by the rescue clause. Such a clause can catch exceptions that inherit from StandardError.

Other flow control keywords that can be used when handling exceptions are else and ensure :. It is a common mistake to attempt to catch all exceptions with a simple rescue clause.

To catch all exceptions one must write:. It is also possible to specify that the exception object be made available to the handler clause:.

Ruby code can programmatically modify, at runtime , aspects of its own structure that would be fixed in more rigid languages, such as class and method definitions.

This sort of metaprogramming can be used to write more concise code and effectively extend the language. For example, the following Ruby code generates new methods for the built-in String class, based on a list of colors.

The methods wrap the contents of the string with an HTML tag styled with the respective color. This implementation is written in C and uses its own Ruby-specific virtual machine.

The standardized and retired Ruby 1. Starting with Ruby 1. As of [update] , there are a number of alternative implementations of Ruby, including JRuby , Rubinius , and mruby.

Each takes a different approach, with JRuby and Rubinius providing just-in-time compilation and mruby also providing ahead-of-time compilation.

The maturity of Ruby implementations tends to be measured by their ability to run the Ruby on Rails Rails framework, because it is complex to implement and uses many Ruby-specific features.

The point when a particular implementation achieves this goal is called "the Rails singularity". The reference implementation, JRuby, and Rubinius [] are all able to run Rails unmodified in a production environment.

Matsumoto originally did Ruby development on the 4. Ruby programming language is supported across a number of cloud hosting platforms like Jelastic , Heroku , Google Cloud Platform and others.

RubyGems is Ruby's package manager. A Ruby package is called a "gem" and can easily be installed via the command line. Most gems are libraries, though a few exist that are applications, such as IDEs.

Many new and existing Ruby libraries are hosted on GitHub , a service that offers version control repository hosting for Git. The Ruby Application Archive, which hosted applications, documentation, and libraries for Ruby programming, was maintained until , when its function was transferred to RubyGems.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. High-level programming language first released in This article is about the programming language.

For other uses, see Ruby disambiguation. Not to be confused with Ruby on Rails. Old version. Older version, still maintained. Latest version.

Latest preview version. Future release. See also: Interactive Ruby Shell. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Everything, including a literal, is an object, so this works: - Generate a random number and print whether it's even or odd.

In an object instance variable denoted with ' ' , remember a block. Bob 33 Ash 23 Chris Don't write only "rescue"; that only catches StandardError, a subclass of Exception.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Free and open-source software portal Computer programming portal.

Ruby Programming Language. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 2 May Beginning Ruby: From Novice to Professional. Beginning from Novice to Professional 2nd ed.

Berkeley: APress. Retrieved Practical JRuby on Rails Web 2. Archived from the original on Retrieved 6 October Neon Design Technology, Inc.

Retrieved 16 November Chris Lattner. The Swift language is the product of tireless effort from a team of language experts, documentation gurus, compiler optimization ninjas, and an incredibly important internal dogfooding group who provided feedback to help refine and battle-test ideas.

Of course, it also greatly benefited from the experiences hard-won by many other languages in the field, drawing ideas from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C , CLU, and far too many others to list.

Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 2 March Re: [ANN] ruby 1. Retrieved April 10, Ruby-Talk Mailing list. Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 5 March Retrieved on October 31, Retrieved February 20, Ruby Subversion source repository.

September 17, December 25, Retrieved December 26, December 21, Retrieved December 27, Retrieved 4 April Retrieved January 4, Retrieved 29 Dec Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 25 December Archived from the original on 4 July Archived from the original on August 18, Retrieved 3 March Ruby programming language.

Yukihiro Matsumoto David Heinemeier Hansson why the lucky stiff. Category Commons. Programming languages. Comparison Timeline History. Free and open-source software.

Alternative terms for free software Comparison of open-source and closed-source software Comparison of source-code-hosting facilities Free software Free software project directories Gratis versus libre Long-term support Open-source software Open-source software development Outline.

Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit. Updated the rpm spec for 0. Git stats 1, commits.

Failed to load latest commit information. View code. Features Supports installing arbitrary versions. Supports downloading the latest versions and checksums from ruby-versions.

Supports installing into arbitrary directories. Supports downloading from arbitrary URLs. Supports downloading from mirrors.

Supports specifying arbitrary. Supports downloading archives using wget or curl. Supports verifying downloaded archives using md5sum , md5 or openssl md5.

Supports installing build dependencies via the package manager: apt dnf yum pacman zypper pkg macports brew Has tests.

Anti-Features Does not require updating every time a new Ruby version comes out. Does not require recipes for each individual Ruby version or configuration.

Install wget -O ruby-install Known Issues Ruby Rubies older than 1.

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